By air

Main international airports in Turkey are: Atatürk International Airport – Istanbul (IST), Esenboga Airport – Ankara (ESB), İzmir Adnan Menderes International Airport (ADB), Antalya Airport (AYT) and Dalaman Airport (DLM).

The national carrier Turkish Airlines offers flights from many European countries to Turkey. Turkish Airlines destinations include: Albania (Tirana), Austria (Vienna), Belgium (Brussels), Belarus (Minks), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo), Bulgaria (Sofia), Croatia (Zagreb), Cyprus (Nicosia), Czech Republic (Prague), Denmark (Copenhagen), Finland (Helsinki), France (Lyon, Nice, Paris), Germany (Berlin, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hanover, Munich, Nürnberg, Stuttgart), Greece (Athens), Hungary (Budapest), Ireland (Dublin), Italy (Milan, Rome, Venice), Latvia (Riga), Macedonia (Skopje), Modlova (Chișinău), Netherlands (Amsterdam), Norway (Oslo), Poland (Warsaw), Portugal (Lisbon), Romania (Bucharest), Russia (Kazan, Moscow, Rostov, Saint Petersburg, Ufa), Serbia (Belgrade), Slovenia (Ljubljana), Spain (Barcelona, Madrid), Sweden (Stockholm), Switzerland (Basel, Geneva, Zürich), Ukraine (Kiev) and United Kigdom (London, Manchester).

Other airlines that offer flights to Turkey include: Aeroflot, Air France, Albanian Airlines, Alitalia, Austrian Airlines, Balkan Bulgarian Airlines, British Airways, Brussels Airlines, CSA, Finnair, Iberia, KLM, LOT, Lufthansa, Malev, Olympic Airways, SAS, Swiss Airlines and TAROM Romanian Airlines.

Turkish Airlines schedules: www.thy.com
Atatürk International Airport: www.ataturkairport.com
Esenboga Airport: www.esenbogaairport.com
İzmir Adnan Menderes Airport: www.adnanmenderesairport.com
Antalya Airport: www.aytport.com
Dalaman Airport: www.atmairport.aero

By sea

Main sea ports in Turkey are Antalya, Bodrum, Çeșme, Dikili, Istanbul, Izmir, Marmaris, Mersin Samsun and Trabzon. It is possible to get to Turkey by sea from Italy (Marmara Lines, Turkish Maritime Lines), Greece, Cyprus (Akgünler Denizcilik, Fergün Denizcilik, Turkish Maritime Lines), Russia or Ukraine (UKR Ferry).

Marmara Lines schedules: www.marmaralines.com
Turkish Maritime Lines schedules: www.tdi.com.tr
Akgünler Denizcilik schedules: www.akgunler.com.tr
Fergün Denizcilik schedules: www.fergun.net
UKR Ferry: www.ukrferry.com

By bus

Two major Turkish bus operators Varan and Ulusoy offer routes to Turkey from many European countries. Ulusoy offers regular bus services from Germany, France, Austria, Italy and Greece. Varan offers routes from Greece and Austria.

Ulusoy schedules: www.ulusoy.com.tr
Varan schedules: www.varan.com.tr

By train

There are regular direct rail routes to Turkey from Serbia (24 hours by Balkan Ekspresi), Romania (20 hours by Bosfor Ekspresi), Greece (15 hours by Dostluk/Filia Ekspresi) and Bulgaria (20 hours by Balkan Ekspresi).

By car

It is a long journey if one intends to get to Turkey by car. The approximate distance from Milan to Istanbul is 2 500 km. There are two possible routes to Istanbul. The first is via Belgium Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. The second leads via Belgium, Germany, Austria, Italy and requires taking a ferry to Turkey (from Ancona, Bari, Venice).


By bus/tram

Visitors may be surprised of the abundance of buses in Turkey – short- and long-distance, municipal, minibuses and crowded dolmus buses (the local form of public transport). This way of travelling is in fact very cheap. Buses are punctual. Tickets can be usually bought onboard. In Istanbul visitors can travel by bus, underground, tram or train. A debit card (akbil) for public transport in the capital can be bought in the booths near the bus stations.

By taxi

There are several things that one should know before taking a taxi (taksi) in Turkey. It is wise to check if the meter is running. There are two rates: day rate (from 7am to midnight) and night rate (from midnight to 7am). The starting fare is 200 000 TL. Taxis can be ordered by phone or found in taxi ranks. For long-distance journeys usually a list of set fees applies.

By car

Travelling around turkey by car requires nerves of steel. Driving is on the right side of the road. International and foreign driving licenses are accepted. Driver must also have traffic insurance and car registration documents. Driver must not drive with a blood alcohol level of more than 0.05 grams/litre. Seat belts are obligatory for drivers and passengers in the front seats. Children under the age of 12 are not allowed to sit in the front seat. Speed limits: towns – 50 km/h, highways and open roads – 90 km/h. Two warning triangles are mandatory.